1991-1997 (while working full time): Doctor of Philosophy, School of Geography, University of New South Wales. Thesis subject: “Requirements for a representative reserve system: a case study in the Western Division of New South Wales.”

1977-1979: Master of Environmental Studies, Macquarie University. Course work on general ecology, land use planning, environmental decision-making, chemistry of air and water pollution, environmental impact assessment, urban ecology, natural and managed ecosystems. Thesis subject: “Waterbirds and wetlands of the upper Hawkesbury River.”

1972-1975: Bachelor of Science with Honours, University of Sydney. Majored in animal ecology and aquatic zoology. Honours thesis subject: “The influence of wave exposure on certain aspects of the biology of the intertidal gastropod Littorina unifasciata Gray.”